If you are kooking for a site's URL information, then the window.location object is for you! Use its properties to get information on the current page address or use its methods to do some page redirect or refresh.

Notice: window.location only works in browser site rendering

For the following URL:

window.location.origin   → 'https://fizzy.cc'
               .protocol → 'https:'
               .host     → 'fizzy.cc:8080'
               .hostname → 'fizzy.cc'
               .port     → '8080'
               .pathname → '/example/'
               .search   → '?s=javascript'
               .hash     → '#2'
               .href     → 'https://fizzy.cc:8080/example/index.html?s=javascript#2'

So to get the full URL path in JavaScript:

var fullURL = window.location.protocol + "//" 
                + window.location.host + "/" 
                + window.location.pathname 
                + window.location.search 
                + window.location.hash

Pathname Break-up

If you need to break up the pathname, for example, a URL like https://fizzy.cc/blah/blah/blah/index.html, you can split the string on “/” characters:

var pathArray = window.location.pathname.split('/');

Then access the different parts by the parts of the array, like:

var secondLevelLocation = pathArray[0];

To put that pathname back together, you can stitch together the array and put the “/”s back in:

var newPathname = "";
for (i = 0; i < pathArray.length; i++) {
  newPathname += "/";
  newPathname += pathArray[i];

How to change URL properties

Not only can you call these location properties to retrieve the URL information. You can use it to set new properties and change the URL.

// START 'fizzy.cc'

window.location.pathname = '/example'; // Set the pathname

// RESULT 'fizzy.cc/example'

Here's the complete list of properties that you can change:

// Example
window.location.protocol = 'https'
               .host     = 'localhost:8080'
               .hostname = 'localhost'
               .port     = '8080'
               .pathname = 'path'
               .search   = 'query string' // (you don't need to pass "?")
               .hash     = 'new-hash' // (you don't need to pass "#")
               .href     = 'url'

window.location Methods

window.location Description
.assign() Navigates to the given URL
.replace() Navigates to given URL & removes current page from the session history
.reload() Reload the current page
.toString() Returns the URL

.assign vs .replace


1. Open a new blank page
2. Go to fizzy.cc (current page)

3. Load new page 👉 `window.location.assign('https://www.google.com')`
4. Press "Back"
5. Returns to 👉 fizzy.cc


1. Open a new blank place
2. Go to fizzy.cc (current Page)

3. Load new page 👉 `window.location.replace('https://www.google.com')`
4. Press "Back"
5. Return to 👉 blank page